Isoleucine (Ile or I)
- Dietary supplement, nutrient.
- L-Isoleucine is one of the essential amino acids that cannot be made by the body and is known for its ability to help endurance and assist in the repair and rebuilding of muscle.
- Isoleucine is actually broken down for energy within the muscle tissue.
- It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
- Includes- 3 essential amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point.
- Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine, and isoleucine respectively.
- These amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors.
- The BCAA are not without side effects. Leucine alone, for example, exacerbates pellagra and can cause psychosis in pellagra patients by increasing excretion of niacin in the urine. Leucine may lower brain serotonin and dopamine. A dose of 3 g of isoleucine added to the niacin regime has cleared leucine-aggravated psychosis in schizophrenic patients. Isoleucine may have potential as an antipsychotic treatment.
- One egg and an ounce of most cheeses each contain about 400 mg of leucine and 400 mg of valine and isoleucine.
- The branched-chain amino acids may have anti hepatic encephalopathy activity in some. They may also have anti-catabolic and anti tardive dyskinesia activity.
- Symptoms of hypoglycemia
Route of Exposure:
- Absorbed from the small intestine by a sodium-dependent active-transport process.