Valine (Val or V)
- Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine, and isoleucine respectively.
- These amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors.
- They provide ingredients for the manufacturing of other essential biochemical components in the body, some of which are utilized for the production of energy, stimulants to the upper brain and helping you to be more alert.; aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine, in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver.
- Widely distributed in nature as one of the principal protein amino acids. Dietary supplement Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy, and muscle metabolism.
- BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise.
- 'BCAA' denotes valine, isoleucine, and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine, and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors.; Many types of inborn errors of BCAA metabolism exist and are marked by various abnormalities. The most common form is the maple syrup urine disease, marked by a characteristic urinary odor.
- Other abnormalities are associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as mental retardation, ataxia, hypoglycemia, spinal muscle atrophy, rash, vomiting and excessive muscle movement. Most forms of BCAA metabolism errors are corrected by dietary restriction of BCAA and at least one form is correctable by supplementation with 10 mg of biotin daily. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; L-valine is a branched-chain essential amino acid (BCAA) that has stimulant activity.
- This group also lowers elevated blood sugar levels and increases growth hormone production.
- Supplemental valine should always be combined with isoleucine and leucine at a respective milligram ratio of 2:1:2. It is an essential amino acid found in proteins; Valine is an amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. L-Valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar.
- It is named after the plant valerian.
- The intermediate-ketovalerate undergoes reductive amination with glutamate. Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA: AAA ratio. (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
- For the treatment or suppression of cold sores (herpes labialis), herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes in immunocompetent individuals, and recurrent genital herpes in HIV-infected individuals. Cold Sores (Herpes Labialis): VALTREX is indicated for the treatment of cold sores (herpes labialis). The efficacy of VALTREX initiated after the development of clinical signs of a cold sore (e.g., papule, vesicle, or ulcer) has not been established. Genital Herpes: Initial Episode: VALTREX is indicated for the treatment of the initial episode of genital herpes in immunocompetent adults. The efficacy of treatment with VALTREX, when initiated more than 72 hours after the onset of signs and symptoms, has not been established.
- General: Facial edema, hypertension, tachycardia.
- Allergic: Acute hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, dyspnea, pruritus, rash, and urticaria.
- CNS Symptoms: Aggressive behavior; agitation; ataxia; coma; confusion; decreased consciousness; dysarthria; encephalopathy; mania; and psychosis, including auditory and visual hallucinations, seizures, tremors.
- Eye: Visual abnormalities.
- Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea.
- Hepatobiliary Tract and Pancreas: Liver enzyme abnormalities, hepatitis.
- Renal: Renal failure, renal pain (may be associated with renal failure).
- Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, TTP/HUS.
- Skin: Erythema multiforme, rashes including photosensitivity, alopecia.
- Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids (the others are leucine and isoleucine) that enhance energy, increase endurance, and aid in muscle tissue recovery and repair.
- It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair.
- In sickle-cell disease, valine substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin. Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin does not fold correctly.; Valine is an essential amino acid, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins. And will flow blood engorged pumps to the penile region. It is synthesized in plants via several steps starting from pyruvic acid. The initial part of the pathway also leads to leucine.
- It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
- Valaciclovir (INN) or valacyclovir (USAN) is an antiviral drug used in the management of herpes simplex and herpes zoster (shingles). It is a prodrug, being converted in vivo to aciclovir. It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Valtrex or Zelitrex. Valaciclovir is phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase to acyclovir triphosphate (the active metabolite) which then inhibits herpes viral DNA replication by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, and by incorporation into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain. When used as a substrate for viral DNA polymerase, acyclovir triphosphate competitively inhibits dATP leading to the formation of 'faulty' DNA. This is where acyclovir triphosphate is incorporated into the DNA strand replacing many of the adenosine bases. This results in the prevention of DNA synthesis, as phosphodiester bridges can longer to be built, destabilizing the strand.
- Valaciclovir is rapidly and almost entirely (~99%) converted to the active compound, acyclovir, and L-valine by first-pass intestinal and hepatic metabolism by enzymatic hydrolysis. Neither valacyclovir or acyclovir is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Acyclovir is converted to a small extent to inactive metabolites by aldehyde oxidase and by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Plasma concentrations of unconverted valacyclovir are low and transient, generally becoming non-quantifiable by 3 hours after administration. Peak plasma valacyclovir concentrations are generally less than 0.5 mcg/mL at all doses. After single-dose administration of 1 gram of VALTREX, average plasma valacyclovir concentrations observed were 0.5, 0.4, and 0.8 mcg/mL in patients with hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, and in healthy volunteers who received concomitant cimetidine and probenecid, respectively. Route of Elimination: Acyclovir accounted for 89% of the radioactivity excreted in the urine. Half-Life: 2.5-3.3 hours
- Adverse effects of overexposure might include a headache and nausea.
- In the event of acute renal failure and anuria, the patient may benefit from hemodialysis until renal function is restored.
Route of Exposure:
- After oral administration, valacyclovir hydrochloride is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability of acyclovir after administration of valacyclovir is 54.5% ± 9.1%.