Body Mass Index (BMI)
DiRenzo et al., (2014) stated on Chromosome 1p36, the location of MTHFR, has been studied with its relation to body mass index (BMI) which is defined obesity and lean mass. The C677T gene polymorphism results in reduced MTHFR activity (34% residual activity in T677T, 71% residual activity in C677T relative to C677C). The presence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, largely with obesity from poor diets and sedentary lifestyles. Diabetes and glucose tolerance impairment may be found in 20% of women age 55-65 years old. High blood glucose is the third leading cause of premature death globally. MTHFR mutations can lead to tissue dysfunction causing metabolic and body composition modification. Additionally, the regulation of mitochondrial function and cell apoptosis can affect body mass variations.
Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. There is a risk of adverse outcomes like impaired protein turnover, insulin resistance, mobility loss, osteoporosis and increased mortality. Sarcopenia is commonly referred to the age-related decrease in function and quality. Sarcopenic obesity has been defined as changes in body composition that result in loss of muscle mass and strength combined with obesity. A study recruited by Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic division of University of Rome Tor Vergata in 2013 on 44 obese women with metabolic syndrome (MS) and placed on a tailored hypocaloric diet for 12 weeks. The participants were split into two groups, T(+) carriers and T (-) non-carriers of C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism. Initial findings showed T(+) were fatter than T(-) carriers. Custom dietary approaches were taken for T(+) women who had a dramatic loss of total body lean (TBLean) mass by providing adequate proteins, omega 3 fatty acid rich food, aiding to preserve muscle mass and prevent sarcopenia 3.